Craig on December 2, 2013

Should I Count Calories on a Ketogenic Diet?

Ketogenic Diet > Keto Diet Information

Calorie counting is a great tool for people to use to get a rough idea of caloric intakes, as well as a way to pinpoint mistakes they might have made if they hit a plateau.

You might have been told that counting calories is not needed on a ketogenic diet because it causes more weight loss than other diets. That’s not exactly true. Would you be burning more calories than a low fat diet? Most likely, but that’s because of your protein intake.

What about high carb vs. low carb? The truth is, there are no studies that properly show a fat loss advantage between low carb and high carb diets.

There’s been over 20 long-term studies done in the last 50 years trying to give a solid conclusion on this, but all of the results have been the same: there is no significant difference in weight loss between a low carb and high carb diet. [1][2][3]

The Ketogenic Diet and How This Ties In

satiety-feeling
The thing about a ketogenic diet is if you tell people to eat as much as they want, they will tend to eat slightly less than other diets. Naturally, you will eat less if you’re eating food that can satiate you easier.

You will have more fullness from vegetables, satiety from protein, feel fuller for longer from the fat, and endure higher levels of thermogenesis from unprocessed foods.

So what does that all mean? In a nutshell, it means that you will eat less food, and therefore less calories. Your body can dig into your fat stores, since you’re naturally restricting calories, and you’ll lose weight.

With high carb diets, usually with a good amount of processed foods, you will see swings in blood glucose. This makes it easy for people to give in to cravings, and succumb to the “carb addiction” created from serotonin and dopamine. There are no magical metabolic advantages to a ketogenic diet. But, the small benefits that make it easier on us is also the reason that it works.

  • Weight loss on a high carb diet: calories determine the fat loss.
  • Weight loss on a normal carb diet: calories determine the fat loss.
  • Weight loss on a ketogenic diet: calories determine the fat loss.
  • Weight gain on a high carb diet: calories determine the fat gain.
  • Weight gain on a normal carb diet: calories determine the fat gain.
  • Weight gain on a ketogenic diet: there’s no scientific data.

If only there was some sort of pattern here. Keto might be magic, but as far as I know there are no studies that support this idea. The scientific consensus is that eating too much will make you fat.

Using Calorie Counting as Only a Tool

It doesn’t have to be some obsessive practice, to the point where you’re always counting exactly how much energy you are taking in, but used more as a tool. You can get a food scale to properly track your intake for a few weeks to get an idea of your baseline. After you have rough estimates, you can gauge what you should and shouldn’t be eating.

While you don’t have to be 100% accurate, you can use calorie counting as a starting point. It’s a way to measure how much energy you are actually taking in, and then adjust it to your needs. Obviously a faster/slower metabolism, activity levels, endocrine problems, etc. will affect the amount of energy you will be expending, and therefore will affect the amount of calories you need to take in.
Calorie-Count

Calories In vs. Calories Out: A Basic Overview

Keep in mind that the basic calorie in/calorie out formula is exactly that – basic. If you are talking in a realistic perspective, the formula stays true but you have to adjust the calorie expenditure for metabolic rates, activity levels, effectiveness of ones endocrine system, etc. The basic formula is:

Energy stored = energy in – energy out

Say your body needs 1800 calories, and you only eat 1300 calories. Weight loss will occur because your body uses roughly 500 calories of body fat to cover the missing 500 calories from your diet:

Energy stored = energy in – energy out
-500 = 1300 – 1800

This leads to a theoretical weight loss of 1 lb per week (3500 kcal per pound of fat). If you ate 1300 calories on keto and lost 2 lbs in a week, you’d have to use 1000 calories from fat stores. That means that 1000 calories of expended energy are external of your diet a day, for 7 days. If that isn’t the case, the formula does not work.

Energy stored = energy in – energy out
-1000? = 1300 – 1800

This fails basic mathematics.

calories-in-calories-out-300
It just doesn’t work in math, and it also doesn’t work in physics. So for keto, or any diet for that matter, to lead to more weight loss – you have to get to a higher energy expenditure of calories for it to hold true. This means increasing your metabolic rate, increasing activity levels, etc.

Energy stored = energy in – energy out
-1000 = 1800 – 2800

So, how many calories should you actually eat? Well obviously that will be different from person to person based on current weight and the current state of their endocrine system. To be short, you never want to go into a caloric deficit that is lower than your fat stores can handle.

How many calories are covered by your fat stores? I went into more depth in this in a previous article, but you can get about 31.4 calories per pound of fat per day. That means if you’re 220 lbs (162 lean mass , 58 lbs fat) you can get about 1821 calories from fat stores.

Self-Reported Studies Debunked

There are a number of self-reported studies that people have been using to “debunk” the whole calorie-in vs. calorie-out debate.

The problem with these is that they are usually misconstrued and presenting incorrect information.

We might take a look at Volke’s study, which is free living and self-reported. It’s a short term study that only allowed 21 total days to be counted, where the induction time of ketosis would cover half of the time the study was carried out.

James Krieger also published a meta-analysis of low-carbohydrate and weight loss which he has since claimed is unreliable and most likely wrong. As the knowledge and science improves, our perspective is changing.

studiesdebunked

Argument that Calories are Poorly Derived

Some may argue that the calorie is a poorly derived unit of energy, which also poorly translates across carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

This simply isn’t the case. We understand how cell respiration works, and there are numerous studies on how it works.

Let’s take a look at how we found these values:

  • Digestible fiber is 2 calories per gram
  • Carbohydrates are 4 calories per gram
  • Protein is 4 calories per gram (with 20% thermic effect)
  • Fats are 9 calories per gram

Counting calories has shown to be accurate. There’s a large database that exists on the energy expenditure. This study shows that the energy expenditure is actually similar to the recommendations adopted by FAO and WHO.

These recommendations have been adopted because studies have been done on these units, and confirmed that these are good approximate values for human digestion and utilization.

Argument that We Excrete Excess Nutrients

nutrientexcretion
Some people are saying that we will excrete excess nutrients if we don’t use them – in terms of protein and fats. This study shows that we will only excrete about 3 grams of fat when we eat 2800 calories a day (50% being from fat). Another study shows that over a 14 day window and multiple diets (high fat, low fat, starvation, overfeeding, etc.) the amount of nutrients lost from excretion is only about 4% of the diet.

We don’t just excrete the nutrients we eat; the energy we eat gets absorbed and used or stored in the body.

Gary Taubes on Calories

Let’s take a look at what Gary Taubes has said, as I know people will be thinking of him as they read this article.

Twenty calories a day times the 365 days in a year comes to a little more than seven thousand calories stored as fat every year—two pounds of excess fat. If it were true that our adiposity is determined by calories-in/calories-out, then this is one implication: you only need to overeat, on average, by twenty calories a day to gain fifty extra pounds of fat in twenty years. You need only to rein yourself in by this amount—undereat by twenty calories a day—to undo it. Twenty calories is less than a single bite of a McDonald’s hamburger or a croissant. It’s less than two ounces of Coke or Pepsi or the typical beer. Less than three potato chips. Maybe three small bites of an apple. In short, not very much at all. Twenty calories is less than 1 percent of the daily caloric intake that the U.S. National Academy of Sciences has recommended for a middle-aged woman whose idea of regular physical activity is cooking and sewing; it’s less than half a percent of the daily quota of calories recommended for an equally sedentary middle-aged man. That it’s such an insignificant amount is what makes it so telling about the calories-in/calories-out idea.

The fatal flaw in this reasoning is that we don’t have the same energy expenditure as our fat mass increases. I just want to point out that the calories in/calories out system doesn’t claim to predict exact energy expenditure, weight gain, or weight loss. It’s just a system that shows how energy intake and expenditure are linked with energy storage and energy loss for the average person.

Whether the system is exactly accurate down to “20 calories” or not doesn’t really matter, as that’s not the intended purpose. What it does is give a reference point for people to individualize their intended weight loss.

Let me dispute what Gary Taubes said with Gary Taubes, in a 2010 interview with Andreas Eenfeldt, “Gary Taubes about why we get fat.

If we get bigger, if we get fatter, if we get heavier we have to take in more calories. There’s absolutely no doubt about it. And if we want to get lighter we have to expend more calories than we consume. Absolutely no doubt about it.

In his book “Why We Get Fat”, chapter six: “Thermodynamics for Dummies, Part 1“.

Health experts think that the first law is relevant to why we get fat because they say to themselves and then to us, as the The New York Times did, “Those who consume more calories than they expend in energy will gain weight.” This is true. It has to be. To get fatter and heavier, we have to overeat. We have to consume more calories than we expend. That’s a given. But thermodynamics tells us nothing about why this happens, why we consume more calories than we expend. It only says that if we do, we will get heavier, and if we get heavier, then we did.

Conclusion

While it does matter the amount of calories you eat, we rarely need to look at this. Why? Because the amount of satiety brought to us from what we eat will naturally restrict the amount of calories we are eating.

Does this mean you can eat however much you want and never gain weight on a ketogenic diet? Of course not. If you are overeating with calories, you are going to put weight on, simple as that.

If what you are doing is working, then keep doing it! I just wanted to make the point clear that calorie counting is necessary for some people, and it is a vital part of the weight loss process.

keepcalmandeatbacon

As always, I’d love to hear your personal thoughts on this in the comments below! Keep Calm and Keto On :)

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